Costa Rica (washed process)
Guatemala (washed process)
Sumatra (wet hulled)
Most small-scale farmers in Sumatra, use the wet hulled process (Giling Basah in Indonesian). The mature coffee fruit, referred to as the coffee cherry, is harvested and farmers remove the outer skin using locally built pulping machines. The coffee beans are stored for up to a day during which a natural fermentation breaks down the sticky residue of the skin. Afterwards the coffee beans, protected by a parchment hull, are washed off before being let out to dry.
Contrary to other traditional drying methods, where the parchment coffee is dried until it reaches about 12% moisture content, the beans in the wet hulled process are hulled when they reach between 30 and 35% moisture content; still semi-wet. The green coffee beans are then further dried to reach the exportable 12% moisture content. This operation gives the beans a unique bluish-green appearance and reduces the acidity and increase the body.